Family history of abnormal development in children



These abnormalities could be due to:

a) chromosomal abnormality

b) structural abnormality e.g. congenital heart abnormalities

c) genetic syndrome e.g. thalassaemia, Fragile X syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis

d) infection e.g. cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, Parvovirus B19, Zika virus

e) birth injury e.g. shoulder dystocia


As much details as possible of the abnormalities should be obtained. Further investigations may be required to delineate the cause before counselling of the risks that could be applicable.

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