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Mothers with medical conditions

These could include:

  • high blood pressure or hypertension

  • high blood sugar level or diabetes mellitus

  • high or low thyroid hormone levels

  • antiphospholipid syndrome or one of the familial thrombophilias (e.g. protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency, antithrombin III deficiency)

  • presence of anti-Ro or anti-La antibodies that may increase the risk of a heart block to the fetus in the current pregnancy

  • systemic lupus erythematosus

  • others

Each of these medical conditions increases the risks for the mother and the fetus, and needs to be followed up carefully by the obstetrician with experience in looking after patients with such conditions.


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