"Cysts" in the ovaries may be simple fluid-filled ones or complex ones filled with fluid mixed with solid areas. These usually do not cause any symptoms unless they are large. If these cysts rupture or leak, they may cause severe abdominal pain. Cysts that are large may also undergo "torsion" or twisting around the vascular supply of the ovaries, causing severe abdominal pain that requires urgent surgery.
Simple ovarian cysts
Simple fluid-filled cysts in the ovaries may either be transient or persistent.
Transient cysts that disappear with a few months are usually functional cysts that are physiological. These do not need treatment unless they cause symptoms.
Persistent cysts are more difficult to manage. It depends on the expected nature of these cysts. Surgery may be required if there are symptoms resulting from the cysts, or if the cysts are large.
Complex ovarian cysts
The nature of these complex ovarian cysts are more worrisome. Depending on the age, symptoms, and the exact appearance on ultrasound, CT scan or MRI, some may be more worrisome than others. Some may turn out to be cancerous. Blood tests for tumour markers may be indicated in some cases. Surgery to remove the ovarian cyst and to determine the nature of the cyst may be necessary. This may be achieved via open (laparatomy) or minimally invasive (laparoscopic) approaches.